A technically important application is the interaction between tire and the deformable surface. In this case the soil is simulated with the DEM method. By suitable calibration of the forces between the particles and the cohesion, with the DEM particles simulation model you may approximate the behavior of a wide range of powder like substrates, from dry sandy soils to highly cohesive snow and slush.
In the example shown, a tire is first pressed into the ground under gravitational load. After the static equilibrium is achieved, the determination of the tire traction by applying a torque to the axle begins. The resultant propulsive force is a measure for the traction of the tire during start-up. The highly cohesive material remains partly adhered to the surface of the tire.